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“When peoples of different cultures interact and intermix, they have some probability of adopting each other’s products, technologies, behaviors, languages, beliefs, values and social institutions” (Rudmin, 2003, p. 2). Unlike a syncretic relationship were two groups of people become fused, the acculturation is a symbiosis, a situation for mutual sharing during which each of the groups involved give and receive (Herskovits, 1938).



“Process of intentionally stimulating meaning in other humans through the use of symbols” (Jandt, 2001, p. 498).

Concurrent validity

“is studied when one test is proposed as a substitute for another (for example, when a multiple-choice form of spelling test is substituted for taking dictation), or a test is shown to correlate with some contemporary criterion (e.g., psychiatric diagnosis).” (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955, p. 2)

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

“Is as type of structural equation modeling that deals specifically with measurement models, that is, the relationships between observed measures or indicators and latent variables or factors” (Brown, 2006, p. 1) .

Construct Validity

“The extent, to which a test measures the attribute, thought of a theoretical concept, that it is designed or used to measure. In one specific treatment it is given by the squared correlation between the test score and the common factor of the items” (McDonald, 1999, p. 457)

Content Validity

“is established by showing that the test items are a sample of a universe in which the investigator is interested. Content validity is ordinarily to be established deductively, by defining a universe of items and sampling systematically within this universe to establish the test.” (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955, p. 2).


“Comparison of a cultural phenomena in different cultures” (Jandt, 2001, p. 499).


“The deposit of knowledge, Experience, beliefs, Values, Attitudes, meanings, social hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions a acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group starving” (Samovar & Porter, 1999, p. 7). Culture is the “sum total of ways of living including behavioral norms, linguistic expression, styles of communication, patterns of thinking, and beliefs and values of a group large enough to be self-sustaining transmitted over the course of generations”(Jandt, 2001, p. 499).



Dialect is any variety of a language that is shared by a group of speakers (Wolfram & Schilling, 2006). Dialect is “a variety of speech differing from the standard”(Jandt, 2001, p. 499)


Critical investigation of truth through discussion and reasoning; discovery of truth through consideration of opposite theory (Guba & Lincoln, 1994).


Factor analysis

Defined as a statistical method that determines the relationship between set of observed variables and constructs. These constructs are known as underlying latent factors (K. Joreskog & Sorbom, 1971), (Muthen, 2005)

Factorial Invariance

Factorial Invariance for a measure means that measurement model is the same when the measure is used in different subgroups and across different occasions (Ward, Velicer, Rossi, Fava, & Prochaska, 2004).



Modern usage refers to the study of the methodological principles of interpretation more generally (Guba & Lincoln, 1994).



Invariance in term of factor analysis assumes the same numbers of common factors are present. Then it turns to the factor loadings which are the latent variable regression coefficients used to define the relationships with the observed variables.



Language is the primary vehicle by which a culture transmits its beliefs, values, norms, and world view (Savamor & Porter, 1991, p. 17). Language is the highest form of thought expression, the basic means of controlling behavior, of knowing reality and knowing oneself and the existence of culture (Spirkin, 1983).



The Systematic assignment of numbers on variables to represent characteristics of persons, objects, or events (Vandenberg & Lance, 2000).


Non invariant

The lack of equality of the size of the pattern (Millsap & Meredith, 2007).


Partial Invariance

“A situation in which there is no perfect invariance for specific parameters, but neither is there evidence of their complete inequality.” (Dimitrov, 2010, p. 128)



"Semiotic is an application of linguistic methods to objects other than natural language." It means that semiotics is a way of viewing anything as constructed and functioning similarly to language. This "similarly" is the essence of the method. Everything can be described as language (or as having a language): the system of kinship, card games, gestures and facial expressions, the culinary art, religious rituals and behavior of insects (Gorny, 1995).


Weak Factorial Invariance

When the parameters have equal factor loadings (Dimitrov, 2010).